The prospective nature of positivism. Between the end of 1886 and the beginning of 1887, the German philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche notes in his private notebooks a lapidary thesis, asserting that “there are no facts, only interpretations”.

Who said there are no facts only interpretations?

Quote by Friedrich Nietzsche: “There are no facts, only interpretations.”

What is Nietzsche’s most famous quote?

Friedrich Nietzsche > Quotes

  • “Without music, life would be a mistake.” …
  • “It is not a lack of love, but a lack of friendship that makes unhappy marriages.” …
  • “That which does not kill us makes us stronger.” …
  • “I’m not upset that you lied to me, I’m upset that from now on I can’t believe you.”

Does Nietzsche believe in objective truth?

While Nietzsche does not plainly reject truth and objectivity, he does reject the notions of absolute truth, external facts, and non-perspectival objectivity.

Was Nietzsche a nihilist?

Summary. Nietzsche is a self-professed nihilist, although, if we are to believe him, it took him until 1887 to admit it (he makes the admission in a Nachlass note from that year). No philosopher’s nihilism is more radical than Nietzsche’s and only Kierkegaard’s and Sartre’s are as radical.

What is the best Nietzsche book to start with?

Beyond Good & Evil

In his 1886 work Beyond Good & Evil, Nietzsche attempts to sum up his own philosophy — making it an ideal starting point for those looking to delve into Nietzsche’s actual writings.

Who is the father of nihilism?

Friedrich Nietzsche

While few philosophers would claim to be nihilists, nihilism is most often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche who argued that its corrosive effects would eventually destroy all moral, religious, and metaphysical convictions and precipitate the greatest crisis in human history.

What did Nietzsche mean by there are no facts?

“ There are no facts, only interpretations” — Friedrich Nietzsche. The essence of it is everyone has their own opinions and interpretations of the same thing, and no one understands it exactly like anyone else. For example, when we read a book, we’re reading the author’s interpretation of something.

What was Nietzsche’s theory?

Nietzsche claimed the exemplary human being must craft his/her own identity through self-realization and do so without relying on anything transcending that life—such as God or a soul.

How does Nietzsche support this interpretation of truth?

He argued that truth is impossible—there can only be perspective and interpretation, driven by a person’s interests or ‘will to power’. Against [empiricism], which halts at [observable] phenomena—’There are only facts’—I would say, no, facts is precisely what there is not, only interpretations.

What did Nietzsche say about lying?

Therefore, society excludes liars. This distinction between liars and the convention-abiding members of society does not explain the drive for truth. In fact, as Nietzsche says, they exclude the liar not so much because he deceives but because some kinds of “being deceived” (KSA 1, p.

What then is truth Nietzsche?

Truths are illusions which we have forgotten are illusions — they are metaphors that have become worn out and have been drained of sensuous force.”

What is reality for Nietzsche?

Reality/Nietzsche/Danto: Nothing else is ‘given’ as real but our world of desires and passions. We cannot go down or up to any other ‘reality’ than the reality of our instincts.

What does Nietzsche mean by metaphor?

According to Nietzsche, we are in metaphor or we are metaphor: our being is not derived from a Platonic, eternal essence or from a Cartesian thinking substance but (in as much as there is a way of being we can call ours) is emergent from tensional interactions between competing drives or perspectives (Nietzsche 2000).

How does Nietzsche define knowledge?

For Nietzsche, and most philosophers, this destroys knowledge as classically understood. Knowledge is only knowledge of the whole, not a part; to think of that as knowledge is just deceptive and illusionary.

How does Nietzsche see the relationship between life and knowledge?

Nietzsche posits “life as a means to knowledge” as an entirely new revaluation of knowledge. Rather than the parameters that was, up to now, prescribed upon knowledge, Nietzsche proposes that the tangible experience of life is in itself a vehicle and form of knowledge.

What does Nietzsche say about metaphysics?

Nietzsche contends that metaphysics only arise from a certain drive. Drives are bio-psychological forces—loci of movement—from which the phenomenon of desire originates. Desires view certain objects or aims as valuable, they evaluate.

Who first said man is the measure of all things?


Protagoras is known primarily for three claims (1) that man is the measure of all things (which is often interpreted as a sort of radical relativism) (2) that he could make the “worse (or weaker) argument appear the better (or stronger)” and (3) that one could not tell if the gods existed or not.

Who believed that the human mind could understand everything?

Protagoras (/prəʊˈtæɡəˌræs/; Greek: Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 BC – c. 420 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and rhetorical theorist. He is numbered as one of the sophists by Plato.

Who is a philosopher in the original sense of the world?


Abstract. The first philosopher is usually said to have been Thales.

Is Socrates a sophist?

W. K. C. Guthrie classified Socrates as a sophist in his History of Greek Philosophy. Before Plato, the word “sophist” could be used as either a respectful or contemptuous title. It was in Plato’s dialogue, Sophist, that the first record of an attempt to answer the question “what is a sophist?” is made.

What were Plato’s beliefs?

Plato believes that conflicting interests of different parts of society can be harmonized. The best, rational and righteous, political order, which he proposes, leads to a harmonious unity of society and allows each of its parts to flourish, but not at the expense of others.

Who drank hemlock?

philosopher Socrates

In 399 BCE the Athenian democracy charged the philosopher Socrates with impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens. Socrates was found guilty by a jury of 501 Athenians and was forced to drink hemlock.

Did Socrates like to argue?

Socrates, as both Plato and Xenophon confirm, is a man who loves to argue: in that respect he is like a Sophist. And his conception of piety, as revealed by his devotion to the Delphic oracle, is highly unorthodox: in that respect he is like those who deny the existence of the gods.

Does Socrates believe in God?

Socrates also believes in deity, but his conception is completely different from the typical Athenians. While to the Athenians gods are human-like and confused, Socrates believes god to be perfectly good and perfectly wise. His god is rationally moral. His god also has a purpose.

Who is the father of philosophy?

Socrates of Athens

Socrates of Athens (l. c. 470/469-399 BCE) is among the most famous figures in world history for his contributions to the development of ancient Greek philosophy which provided the foundation for all of Western Philosophy. He is, in fact, known as the “Father of Western Philosophy” for this reason.

What are the three main virtues of Socrates?

For Socrates and Plato, there are four primary virtues: courage, moderation, wisdom and justice.

What are Plato’s 4 cardinal virtues?

The catalogue of what in later tradition has been dubbed ‘the four cardinal Platonic virtues’ – wisdom, courage, moderation, and justice – is first presented without comment.

Does virtue mean virginity?

chastity; virginity: to lose one’s virtue. a particular moral excellence. Compare cardinal virtues, natural virtue, theological virtue. a good or admirable quality or property: the virtue of knowing one’s weaknesses.