Kant suggests that the concept of noumena can be defended on two grounds; (a) First, its logical possibility: A254-B310. “The concept of noumenon – that is, of a thing which is not to be thought as object of the senses but as a thing in itself, solely through a pure understanding, is not in any way contradictory.

Why did Kant think it necessary to posit the existence of the noumenal world?

Positing the existence of the noumenal world was necessary in order to establish the right boundaries of reason. Phenomena is everything that is observed by the five senses. Kant saw the efforts to describe noumena, or that which exists outside of the senses, as a means of describing or categorizing phenomena.

What is noumena According to Kant?

noumenon, plural noumena, in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, the thing-in-itself (das Ding an sich) as opposed to what Kant called the phenomenon—the thing as it appears to an observer.

What does Kant mean by phenomenal world?

The phenomenal world is the world we are aware of; this is the world we construct out of the sensations that are present to our consciousness. The noumenal world consists of things we seem compelled to believe in, but which we can never know (because we lack sense-evidence of it).

Do noumena exist?

We cannot say that the noumena exists nor does not exist because that is an application of the category of existence, to the noumena which we insist we cannot have direct access to. Similarly We cannot say that the noumena causes nor does not cause phenomena because causality is also a category of understanding.

Why does Kant think that it is impossible for us to have knowledge of noumena?

Immanuel Kant first developed the notion of the noumenon as part of his transcendental idealism, suggesting that while we know the noumenal world to exist because human sensibility is merely receptive, it is not itself sensible and must therefore remain otherwise unknowable to us.

What is an example of noumena?

For example, to explain why the wires in an electric toaster are hot, we invoke the underlying cause of an electric current in the wires; the toaster and its wires, and the heat, are phenomenal, and the electricity is noumenal.

What is the noumenal self?

The self as it is in itself is called by Kant the noumenal self. And according to his principles it surely must be considered ‘free’. The difficulty is of course that we cannot, by those principles, have this thought at all. We cannot, by Kant’s principles, think about the self as it is independently of thought.

Is God a noumenon?

The first is that “there exists a God who orders all things in such a way that the attainment of the highest good is possible” (Ibid). It is impossible for such a deity to be an object of experience, according to Kant. It is therefore a noumenon, a thing in itself, as opposed to a phenomenon.