The fallacy of equivocation occurs when a key term or phrase in an argument is used in an ambiguous way, with one meaning in one portion of the argument and then another meaning in another portion of the argument.
What are logical fallacies in an argument?
Logical fallacies are arguments that may sound convincing, but are based on faulty logic and are therefore invalid. They may result from innocent errors in reasoning, or be used deliberately to mislead others. Taking logical fallacies at face value can lead you to make poor decisions based on unsound arguments.
What are the types of logical fallacies?
Logical fallacies are flawed, deceptive, or false arguments that can be proven wrong with reasoning. There are two main types of fallacies: A formal fallacy is an argument with a premise and conclusion that doesn’t hold up to scrutiny. An informal fallacy is an error in the form, content, or context of the argument.
What are the 9 logical fallacies?
Also known as appeal to popularity, argument from majority, argument from consensus, bandwagon fallacy, appeal to common belief, democratic fallacy, mob appeal, and appeal to masses.
What is the logical fallacy where the arguments contradict one another?
Contradictory premises involve an argument (generally considered a logical fallacy) that draws a conclusion from inconsistent or incompatible premises. Essentially, a proposition is contradictory when it asserts and denies the same thing.
What is a post hoc logical fallacy?
Short for “post hoc, ergo propter hoc,” a Latin phrase meaning “after this, therefore because of this.” The phrase expresses the logical fallacy of assuming that one thing caused another merely because the first thing preceded the other.
What is overgeneralization fallacy?
The hasty generalization fallacy is sometimes called the over-generalization fallacy. It is basically making a claim based on evidence that it just too small. Essentially, you can’t make a claim and say that something is true if you have only an example or two as evidence.
What is a red herring fallacy?
A red herring is a logical fallacy in which irrelevant information is presented alongside relevant information, distracting attention from that relevant information. This may be done intentionally or unintentionally. A red herring is often used in movies, television and literature.
What is a false dichotomy fallacy?
A false dilemma, also referred to as false dichotomy, is an informal fallacy based on a premise that erroneously limits what options are available. The source of the fallacy lies not in an invalid form of inference but in a false premise.
What is the fallacy of ad hominem?
(Attacking the person): This fallacy occurs when, instead of addressing someone’s argument or position, you irrelevantly attack the person or some aspect of the person who is making the argument.
What is appeal to force fallacy?
The “appeal to force” fallacy is a rhetorical fallacy that relies on force or intimidation (scare tactics) to persuade an audience to accept a proposition or take a particular course of action.
What is a slippery slope fallacy?
slippery slope argument, in logic, the fallacy of arguing that a certain course of action is undesirable or that a certain proposition is implausible because it leads to an undesirable or implausible conclusion via a series of tenuously connected premises, each of which is understood to lead, causally or logically, to …
What is the black and white fallacy?
Black & White Thinking – the fallacy of leaping from the falsity (or undesirability) of one proposition to the truth (or desirability) of an extreme opposite – is identical in its basic logical structure to False Dichotomy.
What is an anecdotal fallacy?
A person falls prey to the anecdotal fallacy when they choose to believe the “evidence” of an anecdote or a few anecdotes over a larger pool of scientifically valid evidence. The anecdotal fallacy occurs because our brains are fundamentally lazy. Given a choice, the brain prefers to do less work rather than more.
What is a non sequitur?
Definition of non sequitur
2 : a statement (such as a response) that does not follow logically from or is not clearly related to anything previously said We were talking about the new restaurant when she threw in some non sequitur about her dog.
What is an example of straw man fallacy?
The wife never said that she hated cats, only that she preferred dogs. The husband either assumed or pretended that her argument was against cats instead of for dogs. Now the wife must argue that she doesn’t hate cats — which completely changes the course of the discussion.
What is an example of post hoc fallacy?
The fallacy lies in a conclusion based solely on the order of events, rather than taking into account other factors potentially responsible for the result that might rule out the connection. A simple example is “the rooster crows immediately before sunrise; therefore the rooster causes the sun to rise.”
What is a steel man argument?
The “steel man” is the opposite approach. As writer Robin Sloan explains, the steel man requires a debater to find the best form of her opponent’s argument and then argue with this. Explain what you think your opponent means to them, ask them if they agree this is what they mean, and then argue with that.
What is a straw dog argument?
1. An argument or opponent set up so as to be easily refuted or defeated. 2. Law See dummy. [From the making of sham human figures out of bundles of straw, as for use as scarecrows or practice targets .]
What is a straw man in legal terms?
1) A person to whom title to property or a business is transferred (sometimes known as a “front”) for the sole purpose of concealing the true owner — for example, a person is listed as the owner of a bar in order to conceal a criminal who cannot obtain a liquor license. 2) A fallacious argument intended to distract.
What is the straw man fallacy quizlet?
Definition. The Straw Man fallacy is committed when a person simply ignores a person’s actual position and substitutes a exaggerated or misrepresented version of that position.
What are logical fallacies quizlet?
What is a Logical Fallacy? A standard form of flawed reasoning that seduces and persuades the unaware with claims that attempt to support an argument, but are not logically sound, which leads to faulty conclusions.
What are fallacies quizlet?
fallacy. an argument marked by false or invalid reasoning.
What is a standard about using startling material in the introduction?
What is a standard about using startling material in the introduction? a. It must be factual; otherwise, you have an ethical problem.
Which type of speech is given to help celebrate or recognize an important event?
Commemorative speeches are sometimes known as “ceremonial” or “epideictic” speeches. At the most basic level, commemorative speeches pay tribute or praise a person, an institution, an event, idea, or place. Their focus is on VALUES.
Is a five step method of speech organization that follows the process of human thinking and leads the listener step by step to a desired action?
____________ is a five-step method of speech organization that follows the process of human thinking and leads the listener step by step to a desired action. Feedback: Monroe’s motivated sequence follows the process of human thinking and leads the listener step by step to the desired action.
Which statement is true about the place of the central idea in actually giving a speech?
Which statement is true about the place of the central idea in giving a speech? It comes after the attention-getting material. Which statement is true about the specific purpose statement? It is not said to the audience; it is only a guide for the speaker.
What is an example of central idea?
It is insufficient to say that the central idea of a story is about “loyalty” or “motherhood.” For example, a poorly written central idea for the story of Cinderella would say: “Cinderella is the story of a poor, servant girl who overcomes the cruelty of her family and lives happily every after with Prince Charming.” …
What is extemporaneous speech?
Extemporaneous speeches are developed through outlining ideas, not writing them out word-for-word. They are practiced ahead of time, rehearsed and re-rehearsed (extemporaneous speeches are not impromptu), using a keyword outline of single words and short, 3-5 word phrases.