What must those who believe that thinking can take place only in an immaterial substance show?

And therefore those who place thinking in an immaterial sub- stance only, before they can come to deal with these men, must show why personal identity cannot be preserved in the change of immaterial substances, or variety of par- ticular immaterial substances, as well as animal identity is preserved in the change of …

What did John Locke say about personal identity?

John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

What does Descartes say about identity?

Descartes and the Soul

Descartes claimed that the soul is fully responsible for thought, actions, and feelings, equating it to the mind. According to Descartes, “it is certain that I, [that is, my mind, by which I am what I am], is entirely and truly distinct from my body, and may exist without it”.

What is the problem of substance in Locke?

According to Locke, the mind cannot completely grasp the idea of a substance as it “always falls beyond knowledge”. There is a gap between what first essence truly means and the mind’s perception of it that Locke believes the mind cannot bridge, objects in their primary qualities must exist apart from human perception.

What does Locke mean by substance?

Locke uses the word “substance” in two ways: (i) to mean an entity of a. certain kind (contrasted with modes), such as a man, a sheep, or gold; and (ii) to mean. substratum, or the “unknown support of qualities” of things belonging to the kind.

What is personal identity in philosophy?

Psychologists use it to refer to a person’s self-image—to one’s beliefs about the sort of person one is and how one differs from others. In philosophy the term normally refers to philosophical questions about ourselves that arise by virtue of our being people, questions that may otherwise have little in common.

What does Aristotle mean by substance?

Aristotle defines substance as ultimate reality, in that substance does not belong to any other category of being, and in that substance is the category of being on which every other category of being is based. Aristotle also describes substance as an underlying reality, or as the substratum of all existing things.

What does it mean for a person to have substance?

Someone who has a lot of power, money, or influence. I think my parents were disappointed that I chose not to marry a woman of substance, but they seem to have gotten over it.

Why does Descartes think there are two kinds of substance?

Descartes believed in only two kinds of substance: material body, which is defined by extension, and mental substance, which is defined by thought, which, in this context, is more or less equivalent to consciousness.

Why does Aristotle believes that the category of substance is more real than the other categories do you agree with him?

Primary substance are the most real thing for Aristotle because they are subjects to everything else and all other things are either asserted of them or are present in them.

What is Aristotle’s view of a virtue in defining his idea of the good life?

Aristotle replies: “Virtue makes the goal right, practical wisdom the things leading to it” (1144a7–8). By this he cannot mean that there is no room for reasoning about our ultimate end. For as we have seen, he gives a reasoned defense of his conception of happiness as virtuous activity.

What is the theory that holds that man is made up of two irreducible elements matter and spirit?


dualism, in religion, the doctrine that the world (or reality) consists of two basic, opposed, and irreducible principles that account for all that exists.

What is the theory of determinism?

Determinism entails that, in a situation in which a person makes a certain decision or performs a certain action, it is impossible that he or she could have made any other decision or performed any other action. In other words, it is never true that people could have decided or acted otherwise than they actually did.

What is substance dualism philosophy?

In mind-body dualism. That version, now often called substance dualism, implies that mind and body not only differ in meaning but refer to different kinds of entities. Thus, a mind-body (substance) dualist would oppose any theory that identifies mind with the brain, conceived as a physical mechanism.

Who highlighted the concept of personal identity?

John Locke (1632–1704) added the chapter in which he treats persons and their persistence conditions (Book 2, Chapter 27) to the second edition of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding in 1694, only after being encouraged to do so by William Molyneux (1692–1693).

What according to Locke is the purpose of his essay on human understanding?

… The avowed object of his Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) was “to inquire into the original, certainty, and extent of human knowledge; together with the grounds and degrees of belief, opinion, and assent.” For Locke, the mind derives the materials of reason and knowledge from experience.

Why is personal identity so important?

Firstly, maintaining self-identity is important because it strengthens your character. That is, when we know who we are, have confidence in our self and are able to identify our strengths, we emerge as stronger individuals. Secondly, it keeps us unique and distinguishes us from everyone else.