A self-referential proposition is one that says of itself that it has a certain property and that does not say anything else. Thus, an atomic proposition F(p) (i.e. the proposition that p is F) such that p = F(p) would be self-referential.

What are propositions example?

For example, “Grass is green”, and “2 + 5 = 5” are propositions. The first proposition has the truth value of “true” and the second “false”. But “Close the door”, and “Is it hot outside ?”are not propositions.

What is a self-referential statement?

In the context of language, self-reference is used to denote a statement that refers to itself or its own referent. The most famous example of a self-referential sentence is the liar sentence: “This sentence is not true.” Self-reference is often used in a broader context as well.

What are the 2 types of proposition?

There are three types of proposition: fact, value and policy.

What is a self-reference paradox?

But while they all appear as common sense this story is not yet complete a self referential paradox occurs when a statement refers to itself in such a way that the referent leads back to the starting

Which sentence is a proposition?

A proposition is a declarative sentence that is either true or false (but not both). For instance, the following are propositions: “Paris is in France” (true), “London is in Denmark” (false), “2 < 4” (true), “4 = 7 (false)”.

What is a simple proposition?

Simple propositions are declarative sentences which do not contain a connective. The restriction to declarative sentences is important. In propositional logic each proposition, simple or complex, must be capable of being either true or false. So we won’t count questions or commands, for example, as simple propositions.

What is an example of self-reference effect?

The first experiment revealed a clear self-reference effect on memory for people: participants could recall more people with the same first name as their own than could paired participants. For example, Simon retrieved more people called Simon than David did, but David retrieved more people called David than Simon did.

Is recursion a self-reference?

Recursion is the concept of well-defined self-reference. We use recursion frequently; consider, for example, the following hypothetical definition of a Jew.

What is the problem with self-reference?

Consequently, when it comes to self-improvement, the “self-referential problem” is as follows: An agent is using its own reasoning system to determine that future versions of its reasoning system will be safe.

What is the self-reference effect and why is it helpful?

The self-reference effect, or the tendency for people to better remember information when it has been encoded in reference to the self (Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker, 1977), has proven to be a robust encoding strategy over the past thirty years.

Why is self-reference important?

“Self-referencing is simply the process of linking information with yourself,” says Sheila. This is a useful tool for improving memory, because if you process information while associating it with yourself, you are more likely to remember the information than if you process it in relation to someone else.