How does Rawls explain justice as fairness?

John Rawls (b. 1921, d. 2002) was an American political philosopher in the liberal tradition. His theory of justice as fairness describes a society of free citizens holding equal basic rights and cooperating within an egalitarian economic system.

What is Rawls problem with utilitarianism?

Rawls’s worry was that utilitarianism may fail to protect the fundamental rights and liberties of persons in its attempt to maximize total social welfare.

What is the main idea of justice and fairness?

The most fundamental principle of justice—one that has been widely accepted since it was first defined by Aristotle more than two thousand years ago—is the principle that “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally.” In its contemporary form, this principle is sometimes expressed as follows: “Individuals …

Why is it called justice as fairness?

The original position is, one might say, the appropriate initial status quo, and the fundamental agreements reached in it are fair. This explains the propriety of the name “justice as fairness”: it conveys the idea that the principles of justice are agreed to in an initial situation that is fair.

Is Rawls a utilitarian?

Rawls takes the basic structure of society as his subject matter and utilitarianism as his principal opponent. Part One of TJ designs a social-contract-type thought experiment, the Original Position (OP), and argues that parties in the OP will prefer Justice as Fairness to utilitarianism and various other views.

What is Rawls theory of justice summary?

John Rawls’s theory of justice is a sound theory which says that a well-ordered society needed a concept of justice as a basic requirement and that such a concept could be developed by rational individuals behind a ‘veil of ignorance’ about their own position, and that it would involve, primarily, equal right to basic …

What are Rawls two principles of justice?

Rawls orders the principles of justice lexically, as follows: 1, 2b, 2a. The greatest equal liberty principle takes priority, followed by the equal opportunity principle and finally the difference principle.

How does Rawls use the idea of a veil of ignorance to argue that fair and just distribution can be defended on rational grounds?

Rawls uses the idea of a veil of ignorance to argue that fair and just distribution can be defended on rational grounds. He says that if a person keeps herself/himself under the ‘veil of ignorance’ then s/he would come up with the just distribution, fair laws and policies that would affect the whole society.

What is the principle of fairness?

In its simplest form, the principle of fairness tells us the following. If a number of people are producing a public good that we benefit from, it is not morally acceptable to free ride on their backs, enjoying the benefits without paying the costs.

What is an example of Rawls theory of justice?

So, for example, Bill Gates can earn whatever money he wants but only on the condition that a part of his income would, in the form of taxes, benefit those who lack the skills that he is blessed with. Rawls further says that those in a better position can never think that they deserve what they have.

What is the utilitarian theory of justice?

Practically speaking, it seems obvious that no system of justice will ever meet the interests of every citizen in its society; so utilitarians say that the best system of justice is that which will bring the greatest total amount of happiness to the society as a whole.

What is utilitarianism theory?

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. It is a form of consequentialism. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number.

How do you differentiate justice and fairness provide examples to support your answer?

What is the difference between Justice and Fairness? Fairness is a quality of being fair, showing no bias towards some people or individuals. Justice, in broader terms, is giving a person his due. We want fair treatment in all situations as we believe that we are all equals and deserve impartiality.

What is the meaning of justice as fairness?

Justice as Fairness

The First Principle of social justice concerns political institutions: Each person has the same and indefeasible [permanent] claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme of liberties for all.

What are the ways you can show justice and fairness?

Fairness and Justice: This means to be fair and just in dealing with everyone; treat everyone equally. Make decisions without playing favorites and don’t take advantage of others. Don’t blame others carelessly or unjustly. Take only your fair share, take turns, and share with others.