How do you assess a philosophical argument?

In order to determine whether an argument is valid or not, ask yourself: Supposing that the premises are or were true (whether they really are or not), must the conclusion be true? If the answer is yes, then the argument is valid. If the answer is no, then the argument is invalid.

How do you diagram an argument?

Steps in Diagramming an Argument

  1. Identify all the claims made by the author. …
  2. Eliminate “fluff.” Ignore repetitions, assurances (assertions not backed by evidence or reasons), and information that is unrelated to the argument.
  3. Identify which statements are premises and which statement is the main conclusion.

What is a complex argument philosophy?

Complex Arguments. An argument is complex if it contains a sub-argument, that is, if one of the premises for the main conclusion is also the conclusion for the other premise for the main argument. One premise of an argument is related to another premise in the argument in a premise/conclusion relationship.

What makes an argument deductive?

A deductive argument is the presentation of statements that are assumed or known to be true as premises for a conclusion that necessarily follows from those statements. Deductive reasoning relies on what is assumed to be known to infer truths about similarly related conclusions.

What is a philosophical argument?

Argument2. In philosophy and logic, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.

What are the five steps of analyzing an argument?

The five steps of analyzing arguments include: Determining what the arguer MEANS, CONSECUTIVELY numbering arguments, identifying the argument’s MAIN CLAIM, DIAGRAMMING the argument, and CRITIQUING the argument.

How do you write an analysis of an argument?

How to Write an Argument Analysis Essay

  1. Locate the thesis of the argument you are analyzing. …
  2. List each argument and piece of evidence in support of the thesis and leave space for notations.
  3. Analyze the logic, facts and any data that the argument presents. …
  4. Look at studies that the author quotes if they seem suspect.

How do you analyze an argument?

Steps for Analyzing the Argument:

1) Read the argument and instructions carefully. 2) Identify the argument’s claims, conclusions and underlying assumptions. Evaluate their quality. 3) Think of as many alternative explanations and counterexamples as you can.

What four things should you evaluate in an argument?

Evaluate 4 Factors in Argument Analysis

  • Summarize the author’s reasons. In the standards this is stated as identify, explain, or trace the reasons the author provides in his argument. …
  • Assess the provided evidence. …
  • Identify perspectives represented. …
  • Investigate the author’s credibility.

What two factors should be considered when evaluating an argument?

1)Describe two factors we should consider when evaluating an argument (discussed in Ch. 6 of THiNK: Critical Thinking and Logic Skills for Everyday Life.) Why are they important? The 2 factors are identifying the conclusion ,and identify the premises.

What is the short method of argument evaluation?

Put the argument in standard form. Decide if the argument is deductive or non-deductive. Determine whether the argument succeeds logically. If the argument succeeds logically, assess whether the premises are true.

How do you evaluate the effectiveness of an argument?

In order to determine the effectiveness and validity of an argument then, a listener or reader must look critically at each of the argument’s elements and ask some demanding questions about its claim, reasons, evidence, and assumptions. The claim must be arguable, supportable, and presented with minimal bias.

What is the first step to take when evaluating the credibility of an argument?

Terms in this set (5)

  1. Check the qualifications and reputation of the author.
  2. Determine the circumstances in which the author prepared as the Source.
  3. Identify the perspective or bias of the author.
  4. Examine the accuracy and internal consistency.
  5. Check for agreement with other credible sources.

What does it mean to evaluate an argument?

An argument is a conclusion based upon evidence (i.e. premises). Arguments are commonly found in newspaper editorials and opinion columns, as well as mgazine essays. To evaluate these arguments, you must judge whether it is good or bad.

Which of the following should we ask in evaluating an argument?

In evaluating an argument, we should ask: Does the argument omit any crucial countervailing evidence? In evaluating the sufficiency of an argument’s supporting premises, it is important to ask: If the argument is deductive, does the conclusion follow necessarily from the premises?

How do you know if an argument is valid?

Valid: an argument is valid if and only if it is necessary that if all of the premises are true, then the conclusion is true; if all the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true; it is impossible that all the premises are true and the conclusion is false.

What makes a strong and valid argument?

A valid argument is one in which it is impossible for the premises to be true while the conclusion is false. Thus, a strong argument gives us good reason to believe its conclusion. An argument is strong if you would expect the conclusion to be true based on how well-reasoned the argument is.

How do you analyze an argument using a truth table?

To analyze an argument with a truth table:

  1. Represent each of the premises symbolically.
  2. Create a conditional statement, joining all the premises to form the antecedent, and using the conclusion as the consequent.
  3. Create a truth table for the statement. If it is always true, then the argument is valid.